SKILL ACQUISITION A PANACEA TO YOUTH RESTIVENESS A STUDY OF NIGER DELTA YOUTHS
Youth restiveness in Nigeria is a prominent issue and there has been an increase in the occurrence of acts of violence and lawlessness, including things like hostage taking of prominent citizens and expatriate oil workers, as well as oil bunkering, arms insurgence, cultism, etc., especially in the Niger Delta region. Crime rate and violence as a result of youth restiveness in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has shown that Nigeria is paying dearly for their neglect for qualitative and functional education. Year in year out graduates are been produced who have no market value and unemployable as a result of their deficiency in the needed skills. This study therefore examines skill acquisition a panacea to youth restiveness a study of Niger Delta youths. The objectives of the study were to explore whether the academic background of the restive Niger Delta youths influence their agitations, ascertain whether skill acquisition can reduce youth restiveness in Niger Delta and find out other ways through which youth restiveness can be checkmated in Niger Delta. Three research questions were raised. Strain Theory of Deviance and the Frustration Theory were adopted for the study. A 5-point likert scale questionnaire was used to obtain data. A sample of 98 respondents was utilized for the study. Analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage. Findings from the study revealed among others that; academic background of the restive Niger Delta youths influence their agitations. Skill acquisition through vocational training in computer application, Skill development in bricklaying, skill development in hair barbing and packaging of Agricultural produce can reduce youth restiveness in Niger Delta. Based on the findings it was recommended among others that; skill development should be encouraged among the Niger Delta youths. Various training programmes should be provided for the youths for technical and craft skill acquisition, since this can provide gainful employment for the youth, thereby, making them to be violent free and protect the system. The government should come up with a clear-cut employment policy that encourages adoption of labour-intensive techniques to an extent, so as to absorb more labour. The study conclusion states that Youth restiveness in the Niger Delta region is related to the quality of education, skill development in computer application, bricklaying, hair barbing and packaging of agricultural produce. Violence in the region has its roots in the underdevelopment of the region, which produces the wealth of the nation, through marginalization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Significance of the Study 4
1.6 Scope of the Study 5
1.7 Operational definition of Term 5
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The Concept of Youths and Youth Restiveness 6
2.2 Causes of Youth Restiveness in Nigeria 9
2.2.1 Bad Governance 9
2.2.2 Unemployment 10
2.2.3 Poverty 10
2.2.4 Inadequate Educational Opportunities and Resources 11
2.2.5 Lack of Basic Infrastructure 11
2.2.6 Inadequate Communication and Information flow 12
2.2.7 Role of Information in Curbing Youth Restiveness 12
2.3 Education and Youths Restiveness 14
2.4 Skill Development and Youth Restiveness 15
2.5 Efforts at Addressing the Youth Restiveness Palaver in Nigeria’s Niger
2.6 Theoretical Framework 27
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 30
3.2 Research Design 30
3.3 Target Population 30
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 31
3.4 Research Instruments 31
3.5 Validity of Research Instruments 31
3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument 32
3.7 Data Collection Procedure 32
3.8 Data Analysis Techniques 33
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 34
4.2 Discussion of Findings 48
CHAPTER: SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of findings 52
5.2 Conclusion 52
5.3 Recommendations 53
5.4 Limitations of the Study 54
5.5 Recommendations for further study 54
Appendix A: Letter on Introduction 60
Appendix B: Questionnaire 61
1.1 Background of the Study
At the entrance of the 21st century, Niger Delta region and its surrounding regions saw an unprecedented surge in youth restiveness. Nigeria is usually faced with the challenges of bringing up their young ones. This task of bringing up the young, making members of the society in terms of culture, and imbibing positive attitudes and behaviours normally begins at home and continues in the school. This situation is normally described as socialization (Ololube, 2011, 2012).
When the processes of socialization break down, the result is not always favourable for social order. Many times, the effort of homes are thwarted by other factors that tend to hold back internalization of treasured family values. Issues like academic background, socio-economic background and gender tend to influence youths to deviate from the acceptable norms and values. The gap between people in modern times has been bridged by development in information and communication technologies (ICT), consequently, traditional societies become impacted by value changes from more advanced countries. In addition, various forms of social challenges impact most modern nations these days. Most of these apprehensions are as a result of economic depression, which manifest as unemployment leading to deviant behaviours among the youths. These anti-social behaviours usually become what is termed youth restiveness (Uriah, Egbezor & Ololube, 2014).
In recent times, youth restiveness in Nigeria is a prominent issue and there has been an increase in the occurrence of acts of violence and lawlessness, including things like hostage taking of prominent citizens and expatriate oil workers, as well as oil bunkering, arms insurgence, cultism, etc., especially in the Niger Delta region. Nevertheless, globally youth restiveness is not a recent phenomenon. Various forms of youth restiveness that are economically, politically, or religiously motivated have existed for a long time (Anasi, 2010).
Violence in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has taken an alarming dimension. Cases of violence, kidnaps, killings, destruction of property and youth restiveness in the region have become daily occurrences and prominent headlines both in the print and electronic media in recent times. Kidnaps of all classes of people, hostage taking, violent demonstrations, and wanton destruction of lives and property in the Niger Delta region are reported almost on daily basis.
Some of the youths, though educated, lack employable skills. This explains why some organizations and companies embark on retraining programmes for the few they employ. Lack of skills development in the youths diminishes their chances of being gainfully employed. They otherwise resort to violence, coupled with the understanding that the oil-rich Niger Delta region is seriously exploited and marginalized. Employable skills development in the youth can be a remedy to this problem, hence bringing peace to the boiling Niger Delta region. This justifies the need to study the extent to which skill acquisition can curb restiveness among Niger Delta youths.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Violence and youth restiveness are serious issues threatening lives, property and investment in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria now. The youths seem to take more delight in hostage taking, violent demonstrations, and wanton destruction of lives and property, making life insecure and uncomfortable in the region. It is a threat to investment and development of the region and the country generally. Continuing conflicts in Niger Delta, characterized by inter-ethnic clashes, seizure, and vandalization of oil facilities as well as kidnap of oil workers and all forms of crime, is mounting a heavy pressure on the nation’s oil output and its short-term plans for the industry, which is the bedrock of the nation. Classic and observable cases are those of Warri in Delta and Port Harcourt in Rivers States respectively. The oil companies are counting their losses resulting from shut-downs, and the government in forgone revenue.
The Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) arrogates that over 60% of spills and leakages affecting its installations are caused by acts of sabotage by aggrieved communities of the Niger Delta. Besides rendering the on-shore oil field dormant, the conflict in Niger Delta has also endangered further investment in the region, with the oil companies losing interest in the high risk operations. Their focus has now moved to the deep off-shore fields that seem safer. Unfortunately for the government, the financial arrangement for the deep off-shore is less favourable under the production sharing contract than the joint venture arrangement of the on-shore fields.
Crime rate and violence as a result of youth restiveness in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has shown that Nigeria is paying dearly for their neglect for qualitative and functional education. Year in year out graduates are been produced who have no market value and unemployable as a result of their deficiency in the needed skills. The implications is that youths who strove to acquire higher education are not much better than their counterparts who did not as their educational exposure are not enough to enable them secure good jobs. This problem has been found to constitute one of the major cause of youth restiveness in Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
Skills development in the youth, it is believed, can provide remedy to this situation. With such skills the youth can easily gain employment or be self-employed, reducing the rate of poverty, idleness which often leads to restiveness and violence. The problem of this study therefore is how youth restiveness in the Niger Delta region can be reduced through employable skills development.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the extent to which skill acquisition can curb restiveness among Niger Delta youths.
1. Explore whether the academic background of the restive Niger Delta youths influence their agitations.
2. Ascertain whether skill acquisition can reduce youth restiveness in Niger Delta
3. Determine other ways through which youth restiveness can be checkmated in Niger Delta.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in the course of this study.
1. To what extent can academic background of the restive Niger Delta youths influence their agitations?
2. To what extent can skill acquisition can reduce youth restiveness in Niger Delta?
3. In what other ways can youth restiveness be checkmated in Niger Delta?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is hoped to be of immense significance to the Niger Delta region, Niger Delta Ministry and the country generally. The Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC), higher institutions of learning in the region and country at large, and the Niger Delta youths themselves will benefit from the findings of this study.
The findings of the study will reveal the relationship between skills development, employment and youth restiveness in the region. Institutions of learning will benefit from the study in the area of course restructuring to equip the youth with relevant employable skills. Besides, the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC), the oil companies and governments at various levels will be guided on alternative ways of positively assisting in curbing youth restiveness in the region.
The study will make recommendations that will have far-reaching implications in curbing youth restiveness, wanton destruction of lives and property, and unemployment in the Niger Delta region.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will cover youths within the Niger Delta region with special emphasis on Delta state Nigeria. The variables for the study are youth restiveness as dependent variable, while academic background and skill acquisition as independent variable.
1.7 Operational definition of Term
Given below are the operational definitions of terms used in the study.
Skill Development: As used in this study, this refers to the equipping of the youths with relevant skills that can facilitate the gaining of paid or self-employment. Examples include training in computer-application, bricklaying, barbing, packaging of agricultural produce, etc.
Violence: This refers to the act of Wanton destruction of lives and property by youths in the Niger Delta. It includes youth restiveness, hostage taking, assault, and all form of illegal activities by the Niger Delta youths.
Youth restiveness: Youth restiveness is an uneasy, impatient and hard to control activities of action of Niger Delta youths.
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