ANALYSIS OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR LOW PRODUCTIVITY A STUDY OF AMAKU GENERAL HOSPITAL AWKA
This research Analysed Factors Responsible for Low Productivity: A study of Amaku General Hospital Awka. Four research questions and four hypotheses were raised. The descriptive survey research method was adopted and a sample size of 60 respondents was used for the study. Frequency tables, percentages, and mean were used to analyse the data. Z-test was used for testing the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that; Ineffective management practise has significant relationship with workers’ productivity; The use of out-dated working methods and tools affect workers’ productivity; Employees’ satisfaction has significant effect on workers’ productivity ; Personal problems like stress and ill health has significant effect on workers’ productivity. Based on the findings the researcher made the following recommendations; managers should regularly “take a minute out of each day to look into the faces of the people he manages as a way of realising that they are the most important resources. Provision of necessary facilities and equipment for workers, as well as periodic training and development on how to use such tools properly to improve and educated them on old or new technologies and increase their technical knowhow. Provision of incentives, reward of excellent performance and fringe benefits as at when due should be allocated, assigned and is given out to the workers promptly and immediately to avoid misinterpretation and to encourage the workers that diligent hard work
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page iii
List of Table x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Scope and limitation of the Study 6
1.8 Definition of Terms 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Review 8
2.1.1 Concept of a Worker 8
2.1.2 Productivity 9
2.1.3 Measurement 12
2.1.4 Efficiency-Effectiveness-programme Worthiness Quadrant 14
2.1.5 Factors Responsible for Low Productivity 16
2.1.6 How Productivity can be Enhanced 19
2.2 Theoretical Review 26
2.2.1 Theoretical Framework 29
2.3 Empirical Review 30
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Population of the Study 34
3.3 Sample and Sampling Method 35
3.4 Sources of Data 35
3.4.1 Primary Sources of Data 35
3.4.2 Secondary Sources of Data 35
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 36
3.5 Method for Data Collection 36
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Return Rate of the Questionnaire 38
4.2 Presentation of the bio-data of the respondents 39
4.2 Analysis of the Research Questions 41
4.2.1Implication of ineffective management practises on productivity 41
4.2.2The effect of out-dated working methods on productivity 42
4.2.3The effect of employee satisfaction on workers’ productivity 43
4.2.4The effect of personal problems and poor health on workers’
4.3 Test of hypotheses 46
4.4 Discussion of Findings 58
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 50
5.2 Conclusion 50
5.3 Recommendations 51
LIST OF TABLES
Table No: Title Page
4.1 Distribution and Return Rate of Questionnaire 38
4.2 Demographic Distribution of the Respondents 39
4.3 Demographic Distribution of the Respondents 38
4.4 Demographic Distribution of the Respondents 40
4.5 Demographic Distribution of the Respondents 40
4.6 Mean score responses on the implication of ineffective management practises on productivity 41
4.7 Mean score responses on the impact of the effects out-dated working methods and tools on workers’ low productivity 42
4.8 Mean score responses on the relationship between employee’s satisfaction and workers’ productivity 48
4.9 Mean score responses on the effect of personal problems and poor health on workers’ productivity 44
4.10 z-test on hypothesis one 46
4.11 z-test on hypothesis two 47
4.12 z-test on hypothesis three 48
4.13 z-test on hypothesis four 49
1.1 Background of the Study
Production both in private and public organizations is simply the interrelationship between input and output. Inputs are resources such as labour materials and work done product, distribution or service rendered. In Nigeria, works have been exercising some or certain problems that have been militating against productivity levels, which have completely affected the gross domestic product of the nation. The government is trying to see what maintains productivity to an impressive level, the ministry of labour and productivity, National productivity center, are doing everything to alleviate the issues and problems of low productivity of the Nigerian worker.
Whereas it is almost a routine practice to measure productivity in the private sector, this is not the case in the public sector. Several writ¬ers, including Berkley (2001) have unravelled some reasons for the reluctance. The reasons range from intangibility of the products, inability to distinguish between efficiency and effectiveness, legal restriction on the public sec¬tor to lack of precise definition. Weber (1947) describes the public sector as “a legal entity operating on the basis of calculable rules, and staffed by professionals. It has uniform, non- arbitrary and non-personal methods of perform¬ing its functions. It is, however, criticised for low productivity,” due mainly to political, in¬stitutional, and sociological factors. These prob¬lems are found in large degree in the Anambra State public service. Incidentally, there has been no concerted efforts to redress it as most practi¬tioners, public and civil servants, and scholars tend to have accepted it the way it is.
This ought not to be the case and, the prob¬lem has led governments, especially in Europe, to take proactive measures, to develop and ap¬ply series of private-sector managerial tech¬niques of planning, controlling, co-ordinating and evaluation of programmes and projects in the public sector. In America, for example, there are four popular methods or techniques of mea¬surement namely: management-by-objectives (MBO), programme planning and budgeting (PPB), zero-based budgeting (ZBB), and per-formance evaluation (PE). In practice, the num¬ber and complexity of these techniques have encumbered many public administrators. The problems of low productivity and how to mea¬sures it in the public sector are, indeed, serious, especially in the present era of cost containment, employee unrest, and conflicting goals in the state and the country.
In view of these, one may ask why then is the Nigerian worker faced with problems and issues of low productivity, despite of all government and private sector efforts to improve productivity. This project then intends to investigate the factors responsible for low productivity of workers in Amaku General hospital Awka.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Private and public sectors are faced with problems of low productivity, ordinarily they would just dome more to improve on their productivity, but there are several factors which are hindering them from getting to their full potential This leads to wasting money and losing ground to competitors and in the case of healthcare service providers poor service delivery which can cost lives of patients.
Ineffective management practices decreases productivity in several ways. The overall strategy for such a business contains inefficiencies because the manager does not see and take steps to implement the most productive ways to complete tasks. Individual employees flounder under poor management. They do not have the freedom and coaching to reach their full potential, so they do not get as much done as they could.
When a business uses outdated and clunky methods to carry out its desired goals, its productivity significantly decreases. For example, if one company uses software to automatically record and track data, while another collects it by hand, the second company's productivity will be much lower because the person collecting and tracking data cannot do much else.
Dissatisfied employees are generally unproductive ones, while happy employees who are passionate about their jobs get the work done effectively. People have a natural tendency to prioritize tasks they like, so an employee who likes his job will naturally put his job ahead of his other desires, such as relaxing, chatting with a co-worker or getting through the day so he can go home.
Employees who are experiencing personal problems tend to be less productive than those who are not experiencing similar problems. In particular, stress and poor health both contribute to low levels of productivity. Companies can provide counseling on-site to help decrease stress levels and help employees sort through other personal problems that are hindering productivity.
These among others are some of the problems that militate against workers productivity
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of this study is to investigate the problems that militate against workers’ productivity in Amaku General Hospital Anambra State. Specifically, the researcher intends to;
1. To investigate how ineffective management practises reduces productivity
2. Find out how the use of outdated working methods and tools affect productivity.
3. To explain how employees satisfaction affect workers productivity
4. To investigate how personal problems like stress and poor health affect workers productivity
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the research objectives the following research questions will guide the study
1. To what extent has ineffective management practises reduce productivity?
2. How has the use of outdated working methods and tools affected productivity?
3. Is there any significant relationship between employees satisfaction and workers productivity?
4. How far have personal problems like stress and ill health affected workers productivity?
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The following research hypotheses stated in their null form will guide the study
Ineffective management practise has no significant relationship with workers productivity
The use of outdated working methods and tools does not affect workers productivity
Employees’ satisfaction has no significant effect on workers’ productivity
Personal problems like stress and ill health has no significant effect on workers’ productivity
1.6 Justification for the Study
The result of this research will help to address those problems that militate against low productivity of workers in the public sector of the economy.
The research would also provide management with key, needed background in relevant theories and practices for the management of policies as well as organizing, coordinating and controlling the affairs of the organization both private and public.
It would also go a long way to help the management team in dealing with productivity problems and in the long-run, increase productivity, efficiency and competence of workers which may lead to the an end and eradication of epileptic power supply in the country. This research work would also serve as a material for future references and purpose of analysis for individuals, researchers and so on, handling related issues.
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
This study is supposed to cover all the public business in Awka Anambra state, but due to the limited time allotted for this study, difficulty in obtaining necessary research materials needed for the study, difficulty in accessing workers to get relevant information from them, financial constraints, this study is then limited to Amaku General hospital, Awka Anambra state.
1.8 Operation definition of Terms
Worker: This is defined as someone of legal age who agrees to undertake or perform an assigned task or service as proposed by his employer who agrees to pay him for the execution of such task.
Employee: This is an individual who works part-time or full-time under a contract of employment, whether oral or written, expressed or implied and has recognized rights and duties.
Employer: A legal entity that controls and directs an employee under an express or implied contract of employment and pays (or is obligated to pay) an agreed sum known as salary or wages, in the completion of such task or compensation.
Organization: This is a social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals, through assigning roles, responsibilities and authority to carry out different tasks to achieve a common goal.
Productivity: Is a measure of the efficiency of a person, machine, factory or system in converting inputs into outputs. Productivity is a critical determinant of cost efficiency.
Performance: This is defined as the accomplishment of a given task, measured against preset or known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. In other words, it is the fulfillment of an obligation in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities if under a contract.
Motivation: Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.
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