EFFECTS STATE ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY(SEEDS) IN ENUGU STATE (A STUDY OF ENUGU STATE MINISTRY OF POVERTY REDUCTION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT)
This research work is aimed at evaluating the effects of State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy. The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of State Economic Empowerment and Development strategy on Poverty Reduction and Human Development in Enugu State . Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The data obtained through administering questionnaires were presented in tables and expressed through frequencies and percentages. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using chi-square formula. The study revealed that Exclusion of stake holders from the process of development of government plans, policies and strategies effect poverty reduction. The finding revealed that poor public expenditure management, lack of service delivery orientation and capacity in government institution and exclusion of stake holder from the implementation process are the major factors militating against poverty reduction in Enugu state. It was recommended that suitable and adequate shelter, adequate food provision, reasonable national minimum living wage, employment sick benefits and welfare of the disabled are provided for all citizens. Government police on poverty reduction should follow a multi-sectoral approach, where all the stake holders are given specific roles to play.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
List of Table ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objective of the study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 statement of Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope of the study 8
1.8 Limitations of the study 8
1.9 Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Framework 12
2.2 Theoretical framework 19
2.3 Empirical framework 23
2.4 Gap in literature 25
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 27
3.2 Area of Study 27
3.3 Population of the Study 27
3.4 Sampling and Sample Method 27
3.5 Source of Data 28
3.5.1 Primary Sources of Data 28
3.5.2 Secondary Sources of Data 28
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument 28
3.7 Method of Data Collection 29
3.8 method of data analysis 29
CHAPTER FOUR : PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents 31
4.2 Questions, Analysis and Discussion of Results 33
4.3 Hypothesis Testing 39
CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 45
5.2 Conclusion 46
5.3 Recommendations 47
The state economic empowerment and development strategy has been developed through a participatory process involving a wide range of stakeholders including officials of the state and local government members, the house of Assembly, Civil Society organization, traditional ruler and representatives of business communities. Donor agencies and the World Bank also made considerable input to the development of the strategy as well as federal government institutions like the ministry of finance, national planning commission (Marcellus,2009).
The strategy has over arching goal of achieving sustainable poverty reduction by the enhancement of human capacities and livelihoods through broad –based wealth creation and employment generation.
At the core of the strategy is the effort to address inequality and enforce basic fundamental human right for all citizens, especially the more vulnerable groups such as women, children, disabled people and people living with HIV/AID Virus.
1.1 Background of the Study
Enugu state occupies a surface area of about 8,000sqkm within the west tropical rain forest region between latitude 5o55 and 7o10 North and longitudes 6o50” 7o55” East. It is bounded in the east by Ebonyi – State, in the West by Anambra State, in North by Kogi and Benue State and in the South by Abia State (Adeyemo et al (2008).
Based on the 2006 national census, the population was 3.6 million in 2006 at a growing rate of 2.83% per annum.
The state is ethnically homogenous with majority of the inhabitants being of Igbo origin. Igbo is the predominant language although with a variety of dialects. However, small communities around the Benue/Kogi border speak Idoma and Igala language.
The state has seventeen (17) local government areas and an additional thirty nine (39) were created in 2003, but has not been given constitutional recognition and so remain as development centers (Todaro and smith,2011).
Besides the official government structures of the communities and local government areas, traditional structures are very active in rural life and help to organize the many aspects of development in the local level. The traditional institutions have evolved into more formal settings with elected leaders written constitution (Bye laws), administrative structure and officials. Each traditional institution has its own areas of priority attention, so that together they will cover wide areas of community interest and prospects (projects). The traditional rulers are generally regarded as the father of the community. In conjunction with their cabinet, they are charged with the custody of the community cultural heritage and traditional practices.
In socio-economic and political matters the town union is typically the most prominent of all community based organization (CBO’S) as it represent the collective will and aspirations of the community. It also provides an Umbrella organization (UO), youth association (YA) and the age grade (AG).
Most of the working population are self-employed. Agriculture accounts for 45% of the total work force. Trade is the next most important activity which is 28% followed by civil services with 22% and education and health workers having 5%. Farmers in the state produce a wide range of variety of staple crops, the major one being cassava which is cultivated by about 87% of rural households, but also include yam, vegetable and fruit. Rice is the specially crop of some zones while cash crops such as oil palms and cashew can be found across the state in general (Deverajan, 2002).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Enugu state ministry of human development and poverty reduction (2004) state that poverty has become an endemic problem in Nigeria with 70% of the population living below the poverty line. Enugu State suffers its own share of the problems as available figures shows the incidence of poverty in the state to be almost 60%, poor education and health care, malnutrition as well as social and political exclusion.
Exclusion of stakeholder from the process of development and implementation of government plans, policies and strategies has also been identified as a problem during the implementation stage of the State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDS). Lack of transparency and poor accountability has also been identified (Okafor 2000
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the effects of state economic empowerment and development strategy in Enugu state, using Enugu State Ministry of poverty Reduction and human development as a case study.
The specific objective include:
1. To determine how inappropriate implementation of the SEEDS programme affects the purpose of the poverty reduction.
2. To ascertain to what extent effectiveness and efficiency can be improved in the delivery of basic social services by including stake holders in the implementation stage.
3. To examine how increase in resources allocation to poverty reduction strategy can improve the level and quality of basic infrastructures.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions that guide this study are:-
i. To what extent does inappropriate implementation of the SEEDS programme affect the purpose for its establishment?
ii. To what extent can effectiveness and efficiency be improved in the delivery of basic social services if the stakeholders are incorporated into the implementation process?
iii. To what extent does increase in resources allocation to poverty reduction strategy improve the level and quality of basic infrastructure?
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
The following hypotheses were formulated for this study:
H0: Inappropriate implementation of seeds programme does not significantly affect the purpose of its establishment.
H1: Inappropriate implementation of seed programme affects the purpose of its establishment.
H0: Increase in resources allocation to poverty reduction strategy will not improve the level and quality of basic infrastructure.
H1: Increases in resources allocation to poverty reduction strategy will improve the level and quality of basic infrastructure.
H0: Effectiveness and efficiency will not improve in the delivery of basic social service if the stake holders are incorporated in to the implementation process.
H1: Effectiveness and efficiency will be improved in the delivery of basic social service if the stake holders are incorporated in to the implementation process.
1.6 Significance of the Study
At the end of this study, Enugu state government will be able to know the extent they have covered in reducing poverty in the state, since the establishment of the SEEDS programme. This will also assist the government evaluate the effects of the poverty reduction strategy as well as know the areas to place more emphasis in the economic development plan.
The study will also bring to light the various role of the society, in fighting poverty. Among the role include assisting the government in the economic development plan by contributing their own fare share on the plan. It will also enable the society not to depend solely on government as to providing everything for them but they should put more effort by achieving something by themselves.
The research study is a stepping stone for the academic community in the area of trying to evaluate the poverty trends in Enugu State in particular and Nigeria in general. Also for the future researcher on the effect of poverty reduction strategy employed by the government in recent years
The study also will go a long way in impacting on the mind of the students that one does not rely on the government for the provision of all their needs. Finally, it will assist them in the drive for self-reliance and laying foundations now in other to run away from poverty
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study covers Enugu State ministry of poverty reduction and human development.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The researcher in the course of carrying out this study, encountered many limitation such as finance, cooperation and time limit.
Due to the economic situation in the country there was not enough money for the researcher to execute the research as desired.
During the course of obtaining data for the research work, most people were not willing to provide the information that could help and some totally refused to full the questionnaire.
The interval between choosing of project and submission of the project was very inadequate, as preparation is done together.
However, despite all these problems stated above, which affected the research, the researcher managed to gather adequate information from different sources which is reliable and can stand the test of time.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Acronyms and some important terms used in study are as
1. PRS: Poverty reduction strategy: This programmer was established in other to improve basic infrastructure and also to support entrepreneurship and self help project.
2. SEEDS: State Economic Empowerment and development strategy: This was introduced to reduce the increase in the level of poverty in the state.
3. CBO: Community based organization: are nonprofit group that work at a local level to improve life for residents. The focus is to build equality across society in all streams-health care, environment, quality of education, access to technology, access to spaces and information for the disabled.
4. UO: An umbrella organization is an association of institution, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources.
5. YA: Youth association is an organization of young people, as for social purpose, usually under the sponsorship of a church, political organization or the like.
6. AG: Age grade is a group of persons of the same sex and approximately the same age having certain definite duties and privileges in common and constituting a division of a tribe or society
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