BISCUIT PRODUCED FROM WHEAT PARTIALLY REPLACED WITH SOYBEAN TIGERNUT COMPOSITE FLOUR
The quality of biscuit produced from different blends of tiger nut flour (TF), soybean flour (SF) and wheat flour (WF), and at different ratio were evaluated 12T:5S:83W, 10T:10S:80W, 10T:17S:73W, 10T:3S:87W, 6T:10S:84W, 8T:15S:77W, 12T:15S:73W, 14T:10S:76W and 8T:5S:87W respectively. The tigernut seeds was sorted, over dried for 500C for 1 h, milled and sieved to obtain the tigernut flour. The soybean seeds was sorted, washed, soaked (12 h) rinsed, boiled (30 min.), cooled, dehulled, oven dried (650C) 9 h, milled and sieved to obtain the soybean flour. The biscuit was produced by creaming, mixing, kneading, rolling, cutting, baking and cooling to obtain the biscuit The proximate, sensory, energy and mineral densities, mineral and physical properties of the biscuit samples were evaluated using standard laboratory procedures. Biscuit with 100% wheat flour was used as a reference sample. The data generated in triplicates were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 23. The proximate result of the biscuits shows a significant difference (p< 0.05)among the biscuit samples, ash (2.49 to 3.51%), fat (16.5-21.5%), crude protein (4.07 -7.15%) which increased in some of the biscuit sample as the soybean flour increased while Carbohydrate (62.7-71.6%) decreased as the soybean flour increased. Crude fibre (0.03 to 0.13%), increased as the tiger nut flour increased while moisture content (4.05-5.41%) increased with the increase in the tiger nut and soybean flour .Sensory analysis result shows significant difference(p<0.05) among the biscuit sample ,crispiness (7.05 to 8.55), colour (7.1-8.05), aroma (6.25-7.65) and texture (6.7-8.05), taste (7.15-8.25)which fall within a acceptable range. Sample 2 was found to have the best overall acceptability. The biscuits energy density shows a significant difference (p< 0.05), with energy density (456 - 472) increase with the increase tigernut and soybean flour content, calcium density (51.5-89.8), magnesium density (4.07-7.26) and iron density (0.11-0.35) which did not show any specific trend. Mineral content shows a significant difference (p< 0.05) with calcium (240-420), magnesium (19.3-34.7) and iron (0.54-1.65) without show any specific trend. Physical properties shows a significant difference (p< 0.05) with diameter and thickness while weight did not show any significant difference. Diameter (2.73-3) increased with the increase in wheat content, thickness (3.4-3.87) increased with the increase in soybean, while weight was found to have no significant difference. This result shows that tiger nut and soybean flour can be used as a partial substitute to wheat flour, while reducing cost of production and maintaining very good nutrient value. Samples with ratio of 10T:10W:80W, was found to be generally good considering all parameters used.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
Lists of Tables
Lists of Figures
List of Plates
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Aim and Objectives
1.4 Justification of Study
1.5 Scope of Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 Classification of Biscuit
2.1.2 Ingredients used in Biscuit Production
2.1.3 Process Involved in Biscuit Production
2.2.2 Nutritional Value of Wheat
2.2.3 Health Benefit of Wheat
2.3.2 Nutritional Value of Soybean
2.3.3 Health Benefit of Soybean
2.4.1 Tiger Nut
2.4.2 Nutritional Value of Tiger Nut
2.4.3 Health Benefit of Tiger Nut
2.5 Composite Flour
2.6 Proximate Analysis on Biscuit
2.7 Mineral Analysis on Biscuit
2.8 Physical Analysis on Biscuit
2.9 Sensory Evaluation on Biscuit
2.10 Nutrient Density
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 Sources Of Raw Materials
3.2 Formulation Of Composite Flour
3.3 Production of Soybean Flour
3.4 Production of Tiger Nut Flour
3.5 Production of Biscuit
3.6 Proximate Composition of Biscuit samples
3.6.1 Moisture Content Determination
3.6.2 Fat Content Determination
3.6.3 Ash Content Determination
3.6.4 Crude Protein Content Determination
3.6.5 Crude Fibre Content Determination
3.6.6 Energy Content Determination
3.6.7 Carbohydrate Content Determination
3.7 Nutrient Density Determination
3.8 Mineral Analysis Of Biscuit Samples
3.8.1 Calcium Determination
3.8.2 Magnesium Determination
3.8.3 Iron Determination
3.9 Physical Analysis Of Biscuit Samples
3.10 Sensory Evaluation
3.11 Statistical Analysis Of Data
4.0 Results and Discussion
4.1 Proximate Analysis of the Biscuit Samples
4.2 Sensory Evaluation of the Biscuit Samples
4.3 Energy and Mineral Density of the Biscuit Samples
4.4 Mineral Analysis of the Biscuit Samples
4.5 Physical Analysis of the Biscult samples
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Formulation of Composite Flour
Table 3.2 Recipe For Biscuit Production
Table 4.1 Result for Proximate Analysis on Biscuit
Table 4.2 Result for Sensory Evaluation on Biscuit
Table 4.3 Result for Energy and Mineral Density on Biscuit
Table 4.4 Result for Mineral Analysis on Biscuit
Table 4.5 Result for Physical Analysis on Biscuit
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 3.1 Flow Chart for Soybeans flour
Fig 3.2 Flow Chart for Tiger Nut flour
Fig 3.3 flow Chart for Biscuit
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Biscuit is a term used for a variety of primarily flour based baked food products. The term biscuit can mainly be refer to two products.
In British English, the term, biscuit refer to a small baked, unleavened cake, which is typically crisp, flat, and sweet. In most English speaking countries outside North America, biscuit is a small savoury cake that is somewhat similar to scones. In most English speaking countries except for the US and Canada, crisp cookies are called biscuits (Abayomi et al., 2013).
According to Atobatele and Afolabi (2016), the primary ingredients of simple biscuit include wheat flour, water, sugar, fat, and eggs. The term biscuit also applies to sandwich-type biscuit, where layer of “crème” or icing is sandwiched between two biscuits, such as the custard cream or a layer of Jam. With a population of about 200million people, Nigeria is certainly an entrenched place for the production and marketing of biscuit of different types, tastes and size.
Recent research suggests that consumption of snacks food which include biscuit, cakes and bread has increased with time as most low to middle-income countries experience nutrition transition phenomena.
These snacks foods usually in the forms of convenience baked or fried products are mainly produced from refined wheat flour; they are usually self-fed and eaten between meals (Adeyeye et al., 2017).
Ayo et al., (2018) stated that most food products are principally made from wheat, which is one major constraint in biscuit production.
This has greatly increased the unit cost of biscuits. The low production of high-quality wheat flour in Nigeria and the banning of importation of same by the Nigerian Government have called for research into alternative local source of flour ba0king.
Biscuit is regarded as a form of confection dried to very low moisture content. According to Iwegbue (2012), biscuit is defined as a small thin crisp cake made from unleavened dough. They are common snack that are widely consumed. Biscuit are ready to, eat cheap and convenient food product that is consumed among all group in many countries. (Donohery and Hussein, 2006), Adeyeye and Akingbala (2015) reported that biscuit was produced from 100% wheat flour in the past, before the ban on the importation of wheat in Nigerian. It was also reported that Nigerian climate do not favour the cultivation of wheat but suitable for the cultivation of tropical crop such as soybean, maize etc.
According to Bolarinwa et al, 2015 soybean is a cheap source of quality protein that is superior to all other plants food because it has good balance of the essential amino acids, it contains a reasonable amount of methionine. It was also reported that soybean fortified products not only have more protein and minerals than their non-fortified counter parts, but also considered cheaper than other sources of higher-protein such as fish, meats, milk and other protein-rich legumes. Many Nigerian now incorporate soybean into their diets and the Nigeria Government has declared its production and utilization a rational priority. Incorporating soybean flour into biscuit production will to a large extent improve the Nutritional properties.
Tiger nut (cyperus esculentus); an underutilized crop was reported to be high in dietary fibre content, which could be effective in the treatment and prevention of many diseases including colon cancer, coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetics, and gastrointestinal disorder (Afe-umowaye et al., 2008). Tiger nut flour has been demonstrated to be a rich source of quality oil and contain moderate amount of protein. It is also an excellent source of some useful minerals such as iron and calcium which are essential for body growth and development (Oladele and Aina, 2007).
According to Dubois (2007) Tiger nut fat has been reported to be rich in myristic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid. It has also been suggested in several reports that tiger nut have some health benefits, which include reducing the risk of colon cancer, helping to prevent heart attacks, thrombosis and activating blood circulation.
Though considerable studies have been conducted into its nutritional quality, sensory characteristic, preservation and shelf-life (Belewu and Belewu, 2007) more systematic studies need to be explored for its successful use as an ingredient in some food applications.
Wheat (Triticum Vulgare) is considered as one of the main food crops, it ranks after sorghum as a staple diet especially in urban centers.
The importance of wheat reflected in its relatively high consumption, which was increased from 4,660, 000T to 5160,000 T per year during the period 2017- 2018 (Migueh and Claudia 2018) wheat contributes considerably to the source of protein in the diet, these proteins are unique among the cereal protein because of their ability to form viscoelastic dough, which can be attributed to the formation of gluten when flour and water are mixed. The viscoelastic properties of the gluten in dough system are generally considered important in determining the baking properties of the wheat flour (Atobatele and; Afolabi, 2016).
Okaka (2005) stated that wheat is a cereal grain grown all over the world for its highly nutritious and useful gain. He also said that only wheat contain substantial amount of giadin and glutenin which when kneaded with water gives gluten, the elastic material important in yeast or aerated baked goods.
In terms of total production tonnages used for food it is currently second to rice as the main human food crop.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Wheat flour which is the common flour used in making biscuit lacks certain essential amino acid such as lysine, tryptophan and threonine (Mishra, 2012).
In addition to this deficiency United State Department of Agriculture put wheat consumption in Nigeria as 2017 and 2018 to be 4,660,000 T and 5,160,000 T respectively with a rise from 4.92% in 2017 to 6.17% in 2018 (Miguel and claudin 2018), however, world Data Atlas put wheat production of Nigeria at 60,000T as 2016 (FAO 2017). The serious gap between production and consumption constitutes a major challenge. Huge foreign exchange is wasted in the importation of wheat and hence calls for a more sustainable alternative.
The high rates of biscuit consumption in developing countries and the world over is a major concern that draw attention to the Nutritional quality of biscuit, which may not meet the demand for nutrient balance. The Nutritional quality of most baked food like biscuit do not satisfy the demand for Nutrient balance as they are usually carbohydrate based of which countries intake can lead to protein energy malnutrition.
In Nigeria, the consumption of ready to eat baked product is continually growing with increase in dependence on wheat (Abayomi et al., 2013; Adeyeye, and Akingbala 2013).
Soybean and Tiger nut are locally sourced and readily available. However, little or nothing is known about the physical, chemically, sensory and several according acceptability of biscuit produce with a composite flour comprising of wheat, soybean and tiger nut flours. Therefore, this study seeks to produce and evaluate, the quality of biscuit produced from wheat flour with partial replacement using soybean and Tiger nut flour blend.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research is to produce and evaluate biscuit produced from wheat partially replaced with blend of soybean - tiger nut composite flour.
Specific objective are to:
1. Produce flour and develop formula for the composite flour
2. Determine the proximate analysis of the biscuit
3. Determine sensory properties of the biscuit.
4. Determine the physical Properties bof the biscuit .
5. Determine the energy and mineral densities of the biscuit
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
The adoption of these locally produced flour in the bakery industry increased the utilization of indigenous crop cultivated in Nigeria and also reduces the cost of bakery product
However, the increasing phenomena of urbanization coupled with growing number of working mother, have profoundly contributed to the popularity and increased consumption of snack food like biscuit (Gernah et al., 2010). In addition, the consumption of baked products by human coupled with the escalating cost of wheat importation and difficulty in cultivating wheat in the tropics has focused attention on the need to explore the use of alternative local flours as substitutes for wheat flour in the baking industry. Although many researchers have worked extensively on wheat flour not much work has been done extensively on the use of composite flour on baked product.
The study on the production and evaluation of quality of the biscuit produced from wheat flour and composite flour (Wheat-Soybean-Tiger nut flour blend) is very necessary as it will result in the development of new product with a higher nutritious value and at a better cost than the existing one.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
Analysis of the composition of wheat flour biscuit with partial replacement with, soybean and Tiger nut flour blend. It will cover chemical, physical and sensory properties of the biscuit from wheat flour and composite flour.