EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ORGANISATIONAL POLICIES IN NIGERIAN BUSINESS A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK NIGERIA PLC, ENUGU
This study is an attempt to investigate the effective implementation of organisational policy in Nigeria business organization. The aim of this research work is to ascertain the problems that hinge on policy implementations and also to find out ways of improving efficiency and effectiveness in business organisations. Methodology of this research work is mainly descriptive based on survey method which was used to investigate data for analysis. The major findings in this study includes that lack of management policy implementation have a large impact on the general performance of the organization. Based on the findings, the major conclusion of the study is that management policy is tool that enhances the general performance of the organization when implemented. Based on the conclusion, the researcher recommended that policy implementation in business should be encouraged. Management should have defined policy on promotion and advancement of workers and if does not eliminate prerogative on this matter but rather ensure that the system is either abused nor used for victimisation. Nigeria businesses should ensure or endeavour to institute management policy implementation in order to have an effective implementation of their organisational policies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --viii
1.1 Background to the Study -- - -- -- --1
1.2 Statement of the Problem -- -- -- -- --4
1.3 Objectives of the Study -- -- -- -- --5
1.4 Research Questions -- -- -- -- -- --6
1.5 Research Hypothesis -- -- -- -- -- --7
1.6 Scope of the Study -- -- -- -- -- --7
1.7 Significance of the Study -- -- -- -- --8
1.8 Limitation of the Study - -- -- -- --9
1.9 Definition -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --11
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework -- -- -- -- --13
2.2 Concept of Organisation -- -- -- -- --14
2.3 Definition of Policy -- -- -- -- -- --16
2.4 Types of Policy -- -- -- -- -- -- --16
2.5 Characteristics and Scope of Policy -- -- --18
2.6 Policy Making and Implementation -- -- --20
2.7 Obstacles of Managerial Policy Implementation in the Business -- -- -- -- -- --21
2.8 Remuneration and Motivation in the Business --35
2.9 Meaning and History of Government Participation in Nigeria Business ---- -- --38
3.1 Research Design -- -- -- -- -- --41
3.3 sources of Data Collected -- -- -- -- --42
3.4 Population and Sample Size - -- -- --42
3.5 Techniques and Data Analysis -- -- -- --43
PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation of demographic data -- -- --44
4.2 Analysis of Data -- -- -- -- -- -- --48
4.3 Hypothesis Testing -- -- -- -- -- --58
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Findings -- -- -- -- -- --62
5.2 Conclusions -- -- -- -- -- -- --63
5.3 Recommendation -- -- -- -- -- --64
References -- -- -- -- -- - -- --67
Appendix -- -- -- -- -- -- - -- --69
The role of effective implementation of organisation policies and performance is very important and can never be over emphasized and to achieve this goal, target and objective it is beckoned on the design of managers who do not sit here as a ceremonial heads rather they have role of implementing the organic functions of management in today’s dynamic and competitive business environment in Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the Study
According to Nwankwo (1992) in his book “Education and Training for the Business Management in Nigeria” states that one of the most pressing problems of development in the newly emerging nation of Asia, Africa and Latin America is the lack of management capability for planning and implementation of government programmes as well as the delivery of various social services. Most of these developing countries have inherited from her colonial masters as system of administration and management that was designed for the maintenance of few basic services, law and order. The administration and sub-culture has been promoted after independence despite the efforts of these countries to individualise their business bureaucracies the more rapid race at which programme and projects are being either undertaken or sought i.e. developing nations call for different kind of managerial expertise in the business.
In Nigeria the nationalists that took over the administration of the country after independence in 1960 were faced with the issue of nationalising the various segments of the economy for the achievement of rapid technological and industrial growth. In most growing economy then, money was in short supply. Additionally, skilled manpower was in short supply and private investments were therefore very low. Government with relative capital has therefore failed in irresistible temptation of going into defect investment in economic ventures. But of recent, there has been the notion that the government owned enterprise are having problem in policy implementation. This research will look into the problem of policy implementation on the performance of Nigeria business organisation with special reference to First Bank of Nigeria PLC Enugu.
Also all management experts and authors believe that policy formulation is the part of planning and define it in similar ways. Yoder (1995:26) defines policy as the guideline to managerial action. According to Ewurum and Unamka (1995:12) policy is the general guide to action. It is a guide for making decisions. Nwatu (1996:67) refers to the term policy as the organised methods, procedures, rules and practises associated with implementing and executing strategy. In this sense, policies and guides, to carryout strategy, they set boundaries and limit the kind and direction of actions which are to be taken. They are the result of institutionalising and operationalising the chosen strategy and of getting the organisation into a position of being able to execute the strategic plan effectively and efficiently. Effective implementation of administrative policies could hamper the performance of the organisations this implies that profit maximisation and growth will become elusive. Nevertheless, many organisations do not have clearly defined business policies affect organisational performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Implementation is the process of turning policy into practise. However, it is common to observe a gap between what was planned and what actually occurred as a result of a policy.
Okigbo (1994) said that the failure of prastatals is not inherent in the nature of the enterprise. The failure is duet o the incapacity of the owner and their agenda to allow management to manage the Enterprise and implement its policies. This is one of the major statements made by prominent scholars in Nigeria about government owned enterprise in Nigeria. Many of them are run at and government complained while the management of these enterprises accuse her of total neglect and undue interference. It is therefore n this basis that the researcher has considered it important to investigate the enterprises with special reference to First Bank Nigeria PLC Enugu to look further into the possible solutions to such problems as:
a. Identifying the causes of non-implementation of management policies in the business organisation and making due recommendations as a way of solving the problem.
b. How the integrity of managers in pointer influence policy implementation and its relocation on the assignment of organisational objectives.
c. Finding ways and means of improving efficiency and effectiveness in the implementation of policies in the social business.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is
a. The implementation of organisational policies in Nigerian business.
1.3.1 Specific Objectives
Specifically the objective tends
a. To ascertain the problems that hinge on policy implementation in business organisation.
b. To determine the immediate remote causes of various problems identified in business organisation.
c. To evaluate the effect of these problems in the general performance of an organisation.
d. To device technique for effective policy implementation in business organisation..
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions are to enhance this research work to the standards expected
a. What are the factors that constrain against policy implementation in business organisation?
b. Does immediate and remote problem contribute to the chronic inefficiency in policy implementation in business organisation?
c. How has lag in policy implementation halted the general performance of business organisation?
d. What are the techniques for efficient and effective implementation of management policies in business organisation?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: The factors constraining the implementation of management policies in business organisation are not inherent.
Hi: the factors constraining the implementation of management policies in business organisation are inherent.
Ho: Lack of management implementation does not have a large impact on the general performance of the organisation.
Hi: lack of management policy implementation has a large impact on the general performance of the organisation.
1.7 Scope of the Study
In any research work it sis important to state the scope and limitations so that criticisms and policies will be based on the area one has covered. Some applied to this study, hence the study was focused on identifying and analysing the effect of policy implementation on the performance of Nigeria business organisation and making recommendation especially as it concerns the First Bank of Nigeria PLC. Enugu.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Lesser attention has been paid to problems of policy implementation in the business while more emphasis is being placed on their productivity for the fact that this study is focused on the said problems before narrowing it down to First Bank PLC. A well-established management machinery or smooth running managerial team enable the organisation to enjoy the multiple effects of its merits. Policies are typically instituted to accord some negative effect that has been noticed in the organisation, or to seek some positive benefit. Corporate purchasing policies provide an example of how organisation attempt to avoid negative effects. Many large companies have policies that all purchase above a certain value must be performed through a purchasing process. By regulating this standard process through policy, the organisation can limit waste and standardize the way purchasing is done. Policy addresses the intent of the organisation, better government, business, professional, or voluntary policy in intended to affect the real world by giving the decisions that are made. Whether they are formally, Written or not most organisations have identified policies successful business grow and change along with, market fluctuations. The ability to adopt is one of the strongest tools in a business owner’s arsenal. You can implement a new business policy change only if your employee follows your lead.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The research work has some limitation due to some problems encounter in preparation, they are:
Time: a research of this kind would require enough time to cover many areas effectively enough time to cover many areas effectively but since the research is a student with other classroom works to do, the allocated time is limited. Though a simple idea, time limits raise a lot of complex raised in practise many experts believe that time limits have played a key role in reshaping welfare, but the knowledge base about this key policy change is still thin.
Finance: this also placed another stumbling block. The research work has so much to do with the little that was available and it was not enough. Policies can be sector specific and can be implemented at all levels of government from local to state/provincial to national and international and can be complemented by bilateral regional and international corporation. A key point in finance which affects decisions is the time value of money which states that a unit of currency today is worth more than the same unit of currency tomorrow.
Respondents reluctance: reluctance of people from whom information are sought are also a limiting factor in this research work. Also the unwillingness of the management of the organisation of study to make out time to answer questions fast to then limited the study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Objectives: they are the basic economic and social purposes for which an organisation exists. They are also delivered in an organisation.
Policy: a predetermined guide established to provide directions to decision making. A policy defined as area within which the decision can be made but it does not take the decisions.
Efficient: the ability to achieve is result with minimum input.
Inheritance: the efficient utilisation of the human, material and financial resources for an organisation to achieve the objective of an organisation. It can also be defined as a body or group of person who see to the efficient utilisation of the human, material and financial resources of an organisation to achieve the objective of the organisation. It can also be defined as a business enterprise which engage resources, define responsibility and authorities to individual to enable them perform their duties.
Organisation: a business unit, set up to achieve.
Policy making is a purpose of developing an effective policy
Policy choice is a chosen policy from among the alternative
Policy implementation: the process implementing a chosen policy.
Tool: an instrument for achieving an objective
Environmental appraisal: is the process of examining the environment of an organisation for the identification of opportunities and threats and strength and weakness.
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