INSURGENCY AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEAST NIGERIA (2009-2016)
The acts of terrorism has created widespread insecurity across northern Nigeria. Increased tensions between various ethnic communities, interrupted development activities, frightened off investors, and generated concerns among Nigeria’s Northern neighbours. The costs of crime are tangible and intangible, economic or social, direct or indirect physical or psychology, individual or community. The fight against terrorism has continued despite efforts made to contain it. This research therefore centres on Insurgency and Socioeconomic Development in Northeast Nigeria (2009-2016). Four research questions and four research hypothesis were raised. The method of data collection used for the research is the Secondary source, which is also known as documentation. This study is anchored on Class theory of terrorism and the Orthodox theory. Findings of the study indicates that illiteracy and religious fanaticism are the root cause of insurgency in northeast Nigeria. Also, Insurgency has been found to have a significant negative effects on socio economic development of northeast Nigeria, some of which include; loss of life and human capital, closure of business, underdevelopment, vicious poverty, bad national image, insecurity of lives and properties among others. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended among others that; The federal government in collaboration with other sub-national governments should work assiduously to provide direct and indirect employment opportunities for the army of unemployed, disillusioned and restive youth in the country who are readily available for recruitment as militants, armed robbers, kidnappers, abductors and terrorists. The federal government should therefore formulate and effectively implement policies and programmes capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria such as poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, dearth of infrastructural facilities, uneven development, among others.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Research Question 5
1.4 Objectives of the Study 6
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Literature Review 7
1.8 Research Hypothesis 42
1.9 Theoretical Framework 43
1.10 Research Methodology 50
1.11 Definition of Terms 51
CHAPTER TWO: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA
2.1 Origin of Insurgency in Nigeria 52
2.2 Boko Haram Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency Activities 53
2.3 Cause of Insurgency in Nigeria’s North-East 80
CHAPTER THREE: THE EFFECTS OF INSURGENCY ON SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH-EAST NIGERIA.
3.1 Loss of Life 83
3.2 Closure of Business 85
3.3. Social Impact 86
3.4 Bad national image 87
CHAPTER FOUR: THE PLACE OF THE MILITARY IN CURBING THE BOKO HARAM MENACE IN NIGERIA
4.1 The Military Appro
ach in Curbing the Boko Haram Menace 90
4.1.1 The Military “Massive” Offensive Strategy against the Boko Haram 93
4.2 Achievements of the military in countering insurgency in Nigeria 97
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. Summary of Findings 101
5.2. Conclusion 104
1.1 Background to the Study
Nigeria is a country of about 80 million people at the time of independence in 1960. But now it has approximately 180 million people. Nigeria is a nation of many nationalities. Among the major ethnic groups are the Hausa –Fulani, Ibo, Yoruba, Efik, Edo, TIV, Ijaw and Kanuri, etc. Nigeria is a country in the Western part of the continent of Africa, situates within the tropics between latitude 40 and 140 of the equator and longitude 30 and 140 East of the Greenwich Meridian. It is surrounded on the west by the Republic of Benin, on the East by the Republic of Cameroon, on the North by Niger Republic and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean (Ogoloma, 2013).
Insurgency is a threat to the economic, political and social security of a nation and a major factor associated with underdevelopment; because it discourages both local and foreign investments. In addition, it reduces the quality of life, destroys human and social capital, damages relationship between citizens and the states, undermining democracy, rule of law and the ability of the country to promote development (Akhain, 2012).
On the state of the country, when people feel insecure, their appetite to invest, buy or rent from the product of investment reduces; and that is why all over the world today, any country that radiates an environment of insecurity naturally repels investment initiatives from both the international community and its own local investors. Every society across the globe has its peculiar problems and challenges in which Nigeria is not an exception. Today, insecurity is one of the greatest problems bedevilling various countries in varying degrees. It affects policies of government and also retards development (Ifijeh, 2011)
A number of analysts have variously attributed the disturbing trend to political dissatisfaction, ethnic and religious differences, perceived societal neglect and pervasive poverty among the people. Some scholar attributed insecurity to the desire of man to satisfy his inordinate ambition of lust for power and this has often led to the irrational use of violence against the state, private organizations and the general public with the ultimate objective of achieving selfish goals (Akhain, 2012).
In recent times, there has been an upsurge in the frequency of crime in Nigeria. The problem of insecurity, which used to be one of the lowest in the hierarchy of social problems facing the country, seems to have assumed an alarming proportion since the end of Nigerian civil war in 1970. During the pre-colonial and colonial era, insecurity was merely handled by the Federal Government using the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Nigeria Police Force. The magnitude of insecurity in Nigeria has become so grave that the Army, Police Force, Air Force, Directorate of State Security, etc. have all been drafted into maintaining internal security. The phenomenon of crime has impacted negatively on the economic, social and political life of the nation over time.
Ekanem et al, (2012) revealed that Boko Haram have been in existence right from the 1960s but only started to draw attention in 2002. It is on record that this particular group have been operating under the name Shabaab Muslim Youth Organisation with Mallam Lawal as the leader since 1995 but leadership of the group shifted to Mallam Mohammed Yusuf when Mallam Lawal left Nigeria. The emergence of Boko Haram insurgence has introduced a terrorist dimension hitherto unknown in the criminal space of Nigeria. Series of bombings have been carried out by the sect as well as taking hostage of innocent citizens including over 200 students in Chibok in 2014. This has raised both international and national concern which had also led to a campaign by civil societies called the Bring back our girls’ campaign. The Islamic terrorist group is growing in number and brutality. The continued rise in insecurity in Nigeria if not checked, may result into greater investor apathy for the country and low inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). It would make institutional investors look for other stable economies to invest their capital.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The high level of terrorism and violence in Nigeria by the fundamentalist group (Boko Haram) has heightened fears among the populace and the international community and as a matter of fact, the hostility has gone beyond religious or political coloration. The insurgency has introduced a terrorist dimension, hitherto unknown, into the criminal space in Nigeria. Series of bombings have been carried out by the sect, as well as taking hostage of innocent citizens. Even the United Nation building in Abuja was not spared in the bombing.
It is inevitable that the economic impact of terrorism would be more felt in unsophisticated non-cultural low-income economies than they would be felt in highly advanced, diversified industrial economies. On the state of the country, when people feels insecure, their appetite to invest, to buy or rent from the product of investment reduces; and that is why all over the world, any country that radiates an environment of insecurity naturally repels investment initiatives from both the international community and its own local investors. Hence, crime is a threat to the economic, political and social security of a nation and a major factor associated with under-development; because it discourage both local and foreign investments, reduces the quality of life, destroys human and social capital, damages relationships between citizens and the states, thus undermining democracy, rule of law and the quality of the country to promote development (Adebayo, 2013b).
The acts of terrorism has created widespread insecurity across northern Nigeria. Increased tensions between various ethnic communities, interrupted development activities, frightened off investors, and generated concerns among Nigeria’s Northern neighbours. Thou several meetings, summit, conferences etc. have being held in a bid to curb the menace in the country but all to no avail. Also apart from the fact that meetings have been held, the federal governments have spent millions of naira in making sure that security is brought back to the country but that has never worked.
The costs of crime are tangible and intangible, economic or social, direct or indirect physical or psychology, individual or community. In fact, it is from the cost that the consequences of crime are derived. The cost of crime can be incurred as a result of actual experience of criminal activities, when there is physical injury, when properties are stolen, damaged or destroyed. As a consequence of the prevalence of crime in society, the demographic composition may be altered through mass movement of people from crime-prone areas to areas perceived to be relatively crime –free. This can also lead to brain-drain and other socio-economic problems. When the pillar of national security is weak, the structure quivers and send sensations to the occupiers and potential occupiers of such structures. This is the case with the Nigeria entity, where insecurity and unrelenting violence by the groups in the country have continued to pose a threat to the nation’s economy and investments.
The question is will it ever stop?, can we say that the Boko Haram menace could be understood. Their acts of terrorism have adversely affected the business and economic life of the nation and the effect is felt directly on the North-eastern and North-west parts of the country, where these acts are predominant and indirectly in the rest of the country. These acts of violence, have led to closure of many businesses that could not continue to operate due to insecurity of their investment.
1.3 Research Question
Based on the objectives of this study, the following research questions will guide the study
1. What are the factors responsible for insurgency in North-East in Nigeria?
2. Are there effects of insurgency on socioeconomic development of North-East Nigeria?
3. How has military actions helped in curbing insurgency on North-East Nigeria?
4. In what ways can these insurgent activities of Boko Haram in the North-East Nigeria be managed?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess the impact insurgency on socioeconomic development in North-Eastern Nigeria. Specifically, the researcher intends to;
1. Access the factors responsible for insurgency in North-East in Nigeria.
2. Find out the effects of insurgency on socioeconomic development of North-East Nigeria.
3. Find out if military actions have helped in curbing insurgency ion North-East Nigeria.
4. Explore ways these insurgent activities of Boko Haram in the North-East Nigeria be managed?
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study on insurgency and socioeconomic development in North-Eastern Nigeria will cover the activities of Boko Haram in North-Eastern Nigeria. It will dwell on origin, causes, level of threat posed by insurgency as well as the extent to which military activities has been of help in tackling insurgency.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is that it will act as a guide to the policy makers, future researcher and governments in their quest to quell the problem of terrorism (Boko Haram) as it affects the economy of the country. Result from the study will help organizations and government to understand the factors that determine the scale of the cost of terrorism. Also judging from the fact that terrorism is currently a prevailing canker-warm, this study will help to proffer solutions.
More so, this work, theoretically will be useful to writers, scholars, journalists etc. in order to add to their existing knowledge what they already know about terrorism and business development, particularly in Northwest Nigeria from 2009-2016.
1.7 Literature Review
According to Biereenu-Nnabugwu (2006), literature review is fundamental part of any study. Simply stated, it is a systematic examination or analysis of documents containing information about the problem being investigated or studied. Thus, a literature review’s major task is to critically examine all known literature of previous studies done in the area of concern or those that are closely related to it.
In this research we will be reviewing the various scholarly writings done on this area. This review will be done under the following broad headings
• Conceptual overview
• Theoretical review as well as
• Empirical review
1.8.1 The Concept of Security
Tags: Political Science Project,